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Factual Historical Information
| 48 BC- Julius Caesar wins the battle of Pharsalus, defeating Pompey who flees to Egypt, where he is killed. On October 18th Octavian puts on the toga virilis: Octavian is officially a man. |
45 BC- Octavian accompanies Julius Caesar to Spain for the battle of Munda.
44 BC- Julius Caesar is assasinated. Octavian is adopted in Caesars will
43 BC- Octavian's adoption by Julius Caesar is officially acknowledged. He becomes Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
November 27th - Second triumvirate. Proscriptions of at least one thousand senaters, including the execution of Cicero.
42 BC- January 1st - Julius Caesar is deified and Octavian becomes the son of a God
October 23rd - Battle of Philippi - Antony and Octavian avenge Caesars assassination
39 BC- Octavian marries Scribonia, with whom he has a daughter Julia
37 BC- Antony marries Cleopatra in an Egyptian ceremony
36 BC - Octavian defeats Sextus Pompey at Naulochus in Sicily. Lepidus is removed from the Triumvirate. This puts the power in the hands of two men, Antony and Octavian.
34 BC - Antony divorces Octavia
32 BC- Rome declares war on Egypt and puts Octavian in charge
31 BC- With the help of Agrippa, Octavian defeats Antony at Actium, shortly after Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.
29 BC- Octavian celebrates a triumph in Rome,and receives the title Augustus.
25 BC- Augustus' daughter marries Marcellus (Octavia's son)
23 BC- Augustus receives impeium maius and tribunicia potestas. Marcellus dies, Octavian has Agrippa divorce his wife to marry Julia.
17 BC- Augustus adopts Gaius and Lucius.
13 BC- Agrippa becomes virtual co-emperor, then goes to Pannonia where he becomes ill.
12BC- Agrippa dies. Augustus forces his stepson Tiberius to divorce his wife in order to marry Julia.
March 6th Augustus becomes Pontifex Maximus
5 BC- Gaius is presented as Augustus'heir
2 AD- Augustus becomes pater patriae, father of his country.
Julia is involved in scandals and Augustus exiles his own daughter
14 AD- Octavian dies.
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Octavian was born in Rome on September 23, 63 BC. He was a member of the respectable, but undistinguished, Octavii through his father, and was also the great - nephew of Julius Caesar through his mother Atia Balba Caesonia. The young Octavian had two siblings, one from his fathers first marriage, named Octavia Major and a full sister called Octavia Minor. Octavian's family were wealthy through their banking business in Velletri, where the family was part of the local aristocracy. Through the work of Gaius Octavius senior, however, the family entered into the seniorial ranks with Octavius senior as the families novus homo.
The young Octavian would not have had a very close relationship with his father as in 61 BC Octavius senior was elected Praetor. Since Octavian lacked a direct male presence, he looked to others for that presence. One person who is thought to have acts in that role to Octavian was one of Atias slaves, names Sphaerus. Sphareus most likely accompanied Octavian to the schools Octavian attended. He was such a positive influence on Octavian that he was given his freedom and Octavian gave him a public funeral when he died. When Octavian was four years old his father died, his mother Atia took over his education in the absence of his father.. It wasn't until Octavian was six that Atia remarried, this time to Lucius Marcius Philippus, a supporter of Julius Caesar and former governor of Gaul. Philippus loved his new stepchildren and treated them as if they were his own. Octavian made his first public appearance in 53BC when he delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother, Julia Caesaris, sister of Julius Caesar, this was thought to be when Octavian captured the attention of his great uncle. The same year as Caesar's victory over Pompey, Octavian turned fifteen and donned the toga virilius on October 18. He began his first official business upon being elected a pontiff in the Collage of Pontiffs. It was Caesar who nominated Octavian for this position. While celebrating the Festival of Latins, Caesar appointed Octavian the Praefectus urbi til his return. While this position was solely honourable and gave him no authority it did place Octavian in the public eye. From 46 BC on Octavian was very close to Caesar and attended theaters, banqueats and other social gatherings with him. He also rode with Caesar during his Triumph for his African campaign despite never serving in combat. Upon seeing Octavians closeness to Caesar others would ask him to intervene with him on their behalf. Caesar proposed that Octavian join him in Africa, as he recognized Octavian needed experience with military affairs. however Octavian at the time was unwell. As soon as he recovered, Octavian accompanied by some friends sailed to Hispania, unfortunately they became shipwrecked along the way and was forced to go across hostile territory to reach Caesars camp. This was said to have impressed Caesar. They stayed in Hispania til June 45 BC . When back in Rome Caesar deposited a new will with the Vestal Virgins in which he secretly names Octavian the sole beneficiary. Hoping to continue Octavian's education, Caesar sent him and his friends Marcus Agrippa, Gaius Maecenas to Macedonia. There Octavian learned academics but also military doctrine and tacics. Macedonia was the home of five legions which Caesar hoped to use as a launching ground for an upcoming war with the middle east. In preparation Caesar nominated Octavian to serve as Master of The Horse. However the war never happened as Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March in44BC.
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Returned to Italy, he claimed his heritage and with great cunning and skill, has the support and participation of veterans from Caesar to his cause. His youth and apparent naivety misled political opponents, who used to be thought of it, when did the exact opposite. In letters to friends, Cicero confessed that the young Caesar (Octavian) was easily pushover. In fact, the shrewd couple wanted to make believe that he was, so that when Cicero and Antony were aware of how much was wrong about him, it was already too late for that could shake him.
However, the conspirators of the Ides of March were obliged to flee for the East. Antony, Octavian and Lepidus formed the "second triumvirate" – that, to the contrary of the first one, assumed lawful existence – for avenge the death of Caesar and re-establish the order. The two broken they recruited armies and prepared themselves for the final confrontation between republicans and cesaristas and in Philipos (Turkey), in 23 of October of 42 BC, on account of Brutus and Cassio definitely was lost. Octávio stayed very bad seen by not to have taken part in the battle, to pretense of a fever; Antony stayed with the blond of the victory, certain of that would be he the successor of Caesar.
Defeated the Republicans, proceeded to the division of the Empire: Anthony was with the East, where were the richest provinces; Lepidus with Sicily,Octavian with the rest of the West. Sixth, the son of Pompey Magnus, still dominated the sea and much of Hispania
Thousands of people were executed and their property confiscated. Octavian was well seen in his first years of government; Suetony tells that some time before a request for clemency for a proscribed, the young triumvir replied coldly: "You must die." Cicero, the old speaker, was one of the condemned to death, among many other senators and equitable. These proscribes "finish" with many families of the old aristocracy, who ruled Rome for centuries. (Rome under the 2° Triumvirat)
The triumvirate was dissolved when Antony returned to Rome and Octavia, his wife and Octavian's sister. After married Cleopatra, whom Caesar had appointed queen of Egypt. Through the recognition of Caesarion - Ptolemy XV - son of Caesar and Cleopatra, as his co-manager, Antony, which remained in Egypt and up as oriental potentate, threatened the position of Octavian as sole successor of the Caesars and the war has become inevitable. Octavian consolidated his situation, pacify the Ilíria and contributed to the roman prosperity, with the development of agriculture. The Antony's, campaigns of Eastern served as a pretext for Octavian proclaim the betrayal of the adversary and he's intention to form an independent kingdom of Rome. This declared war on Egypt and Octavian was appointed Consul, to fight against Antony and Cleopatra, whose armies were defeated at the battle of Accio (31 BC). After the defeat, the Egyptian territory was incorporated into Rome. The following year, Marc Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide. Caesarion was murdered. In the year 29 BC, Octavian triumphantly returned to Rome as one of the Lord and received under the name of Augustus (27 BC), the powers hitherto divided among magistrates.
In subsequent years, Octavian base his power in Rome and Italy, founding colonies and distributing land to veterans of Caesar. Finally won the Pompeians, with the help of Marc Antony and aborted an attempted coup led by Lepidus who was exiled and had his life saved, perhaps by the fact that his character is still the Pontifex Maximus, head of Roman religion.
The real proof Octavian's cunning was to maintain the fiction of the old republican institutions, when in practice it was to establish an absolute monarchy. It was a typical Roman solution: no time to break with tradition, there is a new way to exercise power. Now Octavian received the status of "Augustus" the first citizen of Rome.
Rome under Octavian"augustus" in yellow conquered territory.
- Octavian was patron of the art.He financed the poet Virgillio, the historian Titus Livius, the architect Vitruvio, the poets Horacio and Ovid. He funded public libraries, and Latin literature, originally, influenced by the Greeks, acquired independence and became one of the brightest rulers of the western world.
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